The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change came into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has an almost universal endorsement. The 197 countries that have ratified the convention are called parties to the convention. The UNFCCC is a „Rio Convention,“ one of three conventions adopted at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. The prevention of „dangerous“ human interventions in the climate system is the primary objective of the UNFCCC. Read more about the Convention Climate change threatens the essential ingredients of good health – clean air, safe drinking water, nahritious food supply, and safe shelter – and has to undermine decades of progress in global health. WHO is helping countries establish climate-resilient health systems and track national progress in protecting health from climate change. Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of the actions undertaken There is a framework of transparency that will not be intrusive or penalizing, but which must be used to build trust between the various actors. It also foresees that from 2023, the United Nations will present a report every five years (global report) on the implementation of the agreement and the progress made – the impact of climate contributions, mobilization of financial and technological resources, global temperature forecasts, etc. In October 2018, the IPCC published a special report on the effects of global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius and found that limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius would require rapid, large-scale and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society. With obvious benefits for humans and natural ecosystems, the report indicates that limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius from 2 degrees Celsius could be ensured by ensuring a more sustainable and equitable society. While previous estimates focused on estimating damage if average temperatures were to rise by 2 degrees Celsius, this report shows that many of the negative effects of climate change on the 1.5oC mark will occur. On October 5, 2016, when the agreement reached enough signatures to cross the threshold, U.S.
President Barack Obama said, „Even if we achieve all the goals… we will only get to part of where we need to go. He also said that „this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.“ It will help other nations reduce their emissions over time and set bolder goals as technology progresses, all under a strong transparency system that will allow each nation to assess the progress of all other nations.   December – COP 15 was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. It failed to agree on binding commitments when the Kyoto Protocol commitment period expired in 2012. In the final hours of the summit, the heads of state and government of the United States, Brazil, China, Indonesia, India and South Africa approved the so-called Copenhagen Agreement, which recognizes the need to limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius based on the science of climate change.